Category Archives: Elizabeth I

July Challenge Day 2: TUDOR

Here’s my post followed by some early entries to the Creative Challenge, day two…

[Background image: Pembroke Castle; courtesy: Wikimedia]

[My contribution to the Creative Challenge… a logo for a BBC style documentary on the family. Background image: Pembroke Castle; courtesy: Wikimedia]

I’m not a Tudor expert. Other people with a lot more knowledge of British History have written volumes and volumes on Henry VIII and Elizabeth I and the rest. Today’s blog doesn’t come close to telling the whole story of that family. But it is the birthday of Elizabeth Tudor, Henry the VIII’s little sister, so I thought I’d tell you a little bit about her.

English: Portrait of the Royal Tudors. At left...

English: Portrait of the Royal Tudors. At left, Henry VII, with Prince Arthur behind him, then Prince Henry (later Henry VIII), and Prince Edmund, who did not survive early childhood. To the right is Elizabeth of York, with Princess Margaret, then Princess Elizabeth who didn’t survive childhood, Princess Mary, and Princess Katherine, who died shortly after her birth. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

She was born in 1492, one year after Henry. Although she was just three years old when she died she was already a pawn in the marriage game the Tudors were so very “good” at playing. She was to be wed to Prince Francis. Had she lived she would have become Queen of France to his King Francis I. Alas the little girl died of atrophy in 1495.

Elizabeth spent much of her short life at the royal nursery of Eltham Palace, Kent, with her brother Prince Henry (the future King Henry VIII) and her sister Princess Margaret (later Queen of Scotland) under the guidance of a Lady Mistress, presided over by her mother. Elizabeth’s oldest brother, Prince Arthur, as heir to the throne, was brought up separately in his own household. [Find a]

Her death, she was the first of the children to die young –Edmund and Katherine would also die in infancy — effected the family greatly. Her parents spent a lavish amount of money on her funeral and tomb. And Margaret and Henry were devastated by the loss of their little sister and play mate. (He was only 4 at the time.)

A decade later Arthur, the eldest and heir, would die too. Here is Henry with his surviving sisters Margaret and Mary.

English: Erasmus of Rotterdam visiting the chi...

English: Erasmus of Rotterdam visiting the children of Henry VII at Eltham Palace in 1499 and presenting Prince Henry (the future Henry VIII.) with a written tribute. Detail of oil painting in the Prince’s chamber in Westminster Hall. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

When the Court was sure that Arthur’s widow, Katherine of Aragon, was not with child,  Henry was made Prince of Wales and the heir apparent.  He also became betrothed to Arthur’s widow Katherine of Aragon to maintain the political alliance of the marriage brought with Spain. (He was 15, she was 21).

Here's my chart showing the marriages and offspring of the Tudors

Here’s my chart showing the marriages and offspring of the Tudors.

Henry VIII is, of course the central figure in this chart — I supposed that happens when you have six wives and change the church of a nation — but there are eight other heads of states on there (not including poor Jane Grey). That’s a lot of power in one family.

His older sister, Margaret, was married off to James IV of Scotland. She was the grandmother of  Mary Queen of Scots.

English: A picture of Margaret Tudor from &quo...

English: A picture of Margaret Tudor from “Memoirs of the Court of Queen Elizabeth” Deutsch: Ein Porträt Margaret Tudors aus “Memoirs of the Court of Queen Elizabeth” (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

His younger sister, Mary, was married first to Louis XII of France, a man 30 years her senior. He died two months later and Mary married Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk, in a secret ceremony, and with out Henry’s consent.  She was the grandmother of Lady Jane Grey.

Mary Tudor, Queen of France and subsequently w...

Mary Tudor, Queen of France and subsequently wife of Charles Brandon. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)


Thanks to Bill and KL for playing along on the Creative challenge today… I like the way you think!

Please feel free to join them by commenting with your creative take on TUDOR or sending me an email.

Bill suggests a VW Beetle as our Tudor (or is it two door)…

[Image Courtesy:]

[Image Courtesy:]

KL sent in this gif for us. You have  to look closely at it to see why…


Liisa thought of a Tudor Rose — the rose that has red on the outside and a white center, the colors of the petals representing the joining of the York and Lancaster houses after the War of the Roses.

Tudor rose badge from the Pelican Portrait of ...

Tudor rose badge from the Pelican Portrait of Elizabeth I of England (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Thought of the Day 10.21.12 Richard the Third

Blog Note: Today is NOT Richard the Third’s Birthday, that’s Oct 3 1452.


Richard III Royal Collection

Richard III Royal Collection (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Today I’m thinking about Richard the Third of England.

We just saw the terrific Moveable Shakespeare production of Richard III at Chesapeake Shakespeare Company in the ruins of the Patapsco Female Institute in Ellicott City Maryland.

Director Ian Gallanar chose to pick the characters up from the 15th century and time warp them  to something resembling War War One. Clever, especially considering the Patapsco Female Institute was used as a war hospital during the Great War. In his director’s notes he says:

“The production really uses the visual palate and the historic technology of the World War One era as a way to clarify the relationships of the characters….[The audience] might also recognize the futility and wastefulness of a war that, much like the English “Wars of the Roses,” seemed more about resolving who would inherit power rather than who ought to inherit power.” [Chesapeake Shakespeare Company, Richard III: Program Notes]

So on a cold October night we got to see one of Shakespeare’s bloodiest plays in and around the shell of a burned out 19th Century building that some people claim is haunted. The occasional gas-masked actors quietly playing cards in a dimly lit corner or typing away orders on an antique typewriter upped the creep factor. As did the lighting effects, the period music and wonderful costumes.

Vince Eisenson as Richard III. Photo by Teresa Castracane. [Image courtesy: Chesapeake Shakespeare Company]

This version of Richard really worked. I really liked the “Moveable” aspect too. It added to the length of the play (instead of quick scene changes the audience literally did a scene change by moving to a new part of the building or grounds, and that took a while.) My only problem was that there was a scene or two where I couldn’t see the action because I had the bad luck of standing behind some one tall.)  Still, I liked that we kept moving through the building, and “discovering” new rooms. It really put the audience DEAD center into the action of the play (and moving about  kept us warm.)

Richard III runs for one more weekend at Chesapeake Shakespeare. So if you are local to Maryland jump on their website and grab some tickets before they sell out.


Scrap for a Shakespeare character card: Richar...

Scrap for a Shakespeare character card: Richard III., c. 1890; Printer: Siegmund Hildesheimer & Co. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, Museum number: S.63-2008, Link (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Of course they didn’t have instant fact checkers in Shakespeare’s day, and history, as they say is written by the winners. So it comes as no surprise that the Richard the Third we met last night was a real piece of work. Shakespeare was writing for an Elizabethan audience. Elizabeth, a Tudor, was the granddaughter of the man who finally brought about Richard’s undoing on Bosworth Field in Leicestershire, Henry VII. It was in his interest to make Richard as loathsome as possible.

Henry VII’s claim to the thrown was weak at best. So he took…

“every opportunity of enhancing his own reputation at the expense of his predecessor. Richard’s actions and behaviour were the subject of attention and scrutiny and were presented, in the weeks and years after his death, as those of a wicked and unscrupulous tyrant.” [The Richard III Society]

While he was alive Richard was well thought of.

  • He was loyal to his brother Edward.
  • He was effective in his administration of the North.
  • He defended the country against the Scots.
  • He handled the premature death of Edward with out plunging the country into crisis.

Shakespeare wasn’t the first writer to take up the thread of anti- Richard-ism. (Yes, I just made that up.)

By the time the Elizabethan playwright William Shakespeare penned what was to become one of his most popular and frequently performed plays, The Tragedy of King Richard III, the works of the anonymous Croyland Chronicler, John Rous, Bernard André, Polydore Vergil, Sir Thomas More, Edward Hall, Richard Grafton and Raphael Holinshed had been written. [Ibid]

So, as Chesapeake Shakespeare Managing  Director and Richard III Dramaturge says in her note… The Bard’s “fictitious villainous Richard has triumphed over the historic Richard for centuries now.” [CSC Program]

Richard III earliest surviving portrait. [Image courtesy: Wikipedia]

In a timely twist of history archeologists digging up a parking lot in Leicester have found the remains of  the Greyfriars Church that might be those of Richard, the last King of England to die on the battlefield. They have found a skeleton in the choir area (Richard was buried in the choir of Friars Minor at Leicester), that had a skull injury caused by a bladed implement, an arrowhead was found between its vertebrae and upper back, and it had spinal abnormalities.

“the individual would have had severe scoliosis – which is a form of spinal curvature. This would have made his right shoulder appear visibly higher than the left shoulder.” [University of Leicester Press Release : The Leicester Greyfriars Dig]



Bonus Material:

Not sure how many of you watch HBO’s Boardwalk Empire… but I couldn’t stop thinking how much Michael Shannon  (who plays messed up Treasury agent turned iron salesman Nelson Van Alden) looks like our boy Richard.  I think they ought to do a new film version of Richard cubed with Shannon in the lead. He certainly has the intensity to play the role.

Thought of the Day 10.3.12 Clive Owens

“The sexiest part of the body is the eyes. That’s what I believe.”
Clive Owen


Clive Owen was born on this day in Coventry, West Midlands, England. he is 48 years old.

He grew up in a the small working class town of Coventry. He is fourth in a brood of five boys. His father exited the scene when Clive was 3, and he was raised by his mother and step father. He starting acting at 13 when he was cast as the Artful Dodger in a school play. (And there has been a little bit of the Artful Dodger in almost every role he’s played since.) He says he became “completely obsessed and decided to become an actor from then on.” He moved on to the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London in 1987. The audition process was daunting, two monologues, one modern and one from Shakespeare. If you nailed it you were in, if you didn’t, you weren’t. He nailed it. After RADA he continued doing Shakespeare at the Young Vic.

From theatre he moved to television. His most notable series being  Chancer –where he played a con-man with a heart of gold, he’s an anti-hero who is willing to use all the arrows in his –checkered past’s– quiver to help his friends. As the show’s tag line says “He’s rude, arrogant, ingenious, unprincipled … and utterly charming.”   [Owen’s is still growing into himself as an actor in Chancer. He’s good, but he’s not great. And The production values are definitely television level.]


Cover art for Croupier.

His big break in film came in the 1998 movie Croupier. Owens plays a an aspiring writer who takes a job as casino croupier to both pay the bills and help with research on a book. Owens narrates the movie in his deadpan quasi-noir style. [It is well written and well acted, and deserves a place on your Clive Owen’s Netflix queue.]

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He shifted gears to play Colin Briggs a prisoner in an experimental English prison who gets rehabilitated  through gardening in Greenfingers. Helen Mirren also stars. [I really enjoyed this gentle movie. Although it is largely set in a prison it isn’t filled with the violence that is so often present in a Owen’s film. Make this #2 for your C.O. Netflix queue.]

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Back on BBC One he starred in Second Sight as Chief Inspector Ross Tanner a detective who is loosing his eye sight.

He played a key role in Robert Altman’s ensemble film Gosford Park. [There’s so much to see in Gosford Park you’ll probably need to watch it more than once. Plus…Maggie Smith bonus!… put it in your queue.]

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On stage he appeared as Dan both in the West End and Broadway versions of Closer. When the show was made into a movie in 2005 he switched roles and played Larry. He garnered a Golden Globe and BAFTA award for the film.

He followed Closer with a trio of films, Derailed, Sin City andInside Man in quick succession He was rumored to be the next James Bond, but the producers chose Daniel Craig instead. Which is fine because it left him open to take his best role to date, Theo Faron in Alfonso Cuaron’s Children of Men.

Children of Men is a gritty dystopian look at life in 2027 England. “It’s a heartbreaking, bullet-strewn valentine to what keeps us human.” (–Keith Phipps) and is loosely based on the P.D. James novel of the same name. Owen, whose characters are often anti heroes who spend a movie reacting to shit that thrown at them, is the anti-ist of heroes who has the most shit ever thrown at him in the roughly 100 minute running time of the film. And he is wonderful in it. [This is my favorite Owen’s movie and my number one pick for your Netflix queue.]

He is good in other films, Elizabeth: The Golden Age, King Arthur, andInside Man; and just OK in a slew of films where he always seems to play the same guy with a gun.  He was very funny poking fun at his leading man image in a guest spot on the Ricky Gervais show Extras. [ I didn’t make it through the HBO Hemingway & Gellhorn, (I’m not sure if was a too tense Nicolle Kidman, the excess of sex, Clive’s mustache, or a combination of  all three, but  I gave up about 45 minutes in.) There are a couple of films I’m looking forward to seeing– The Boys Are Back and Shadow Dancer both look interesting. ]

[Image courtesy: The Movie Blog]

He met his wife when they were cast opposite each other as Romeo and Juliet 20 years ago. For an actor considered an international sex symbol/tough guy he is very family oriented. He does a movie for several months then comes home where he enjoys being a homebody/nobody. They have two pre-teen girls.

Thought of the Day 9.19.12 Jeremy Irons

“It’s always great to play a man who sets himself up to be punctured.”

–Jeremy Irons

Jeremy John Irons was born on this day in Cowes on the Isle of Wight, England in 1948. He is 64 years old.

He grew up on the island, and didn’t have much connection with the professional performing arts. The family only ventured to the mainland once a year. But when he was an adolescent the family moved to Hertfordshire and, at 13, Jeremy was sent to the Sherborne School in Dorset. There he took part in a four-man school band called the Four Pillars of Wisdom. The group played for their mates on Sunday afternoons, with Jeremy on drums and harmonica (including stand out harmonica solos in “Moon River” and “Stairway to Heaven.” — because when you think of Stairway to Heaven you think ‘harmonica solo!’) He also performed comedy skits and was in the school’s production of My Fair Lady (he played Professor Higgins.)

Irons trained at the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School. There he “gained much experience working in everything from Shakespeare to contemporary dramas.” [IMDB biography] He supported himself with a number of odd jobs and by busking on the streets of Bristol.

In 1971 he moved to London and landed the role dual role of John the Baptist/Judas in Godspell at the Round House.

He did a lot of television work in the 1970’s including: The Pallisers;  Love of Lydia; Churchill’s People; Langrishe, Go Down; The Voysey Inheritance; and as Franz Liszt in Notorious Woman,

His film debut was in the 1980 film Nijinsky, but his break out role was opposite Meryl Streep in the French Lieutenant’s Woman. The film, based on the John Fowles novel, follows two parallel love stories — one between Victorian palaeontologist Charles and “the French Lieutenant’s Whore” Sarah; the other between Mike and Anna, the actors who play the Victorian couple in a movie they are making on the novel. Irons was nominated for a BAFTA Award for best Actor (Streep won one for Best Actress.)

Still from The French Lieutenant’s Woman [Image Courtesy: Encyclopedia Britannica]

Back on television he played another Charles, Charles Ryder, opposite Anthony Andrew’s Sebastian Flyte in the hugely successful Brideshead Revisited  based on the Evelyn Waugh novel.  Irons got another BAFTA Nomination (Andrews won), both men were nominated for Emmy Awards.

Anthony Andrews and Jeremy Irons in Brideshead Revisited (Image Courtesy The Guardian.)

He followed those two high profile projects with an independent film about Polish guest workers in London, Moonlighting.

Irons played Father Gabriel in Roland Joffe’s The Mission. Father Gabriel is a Spanish Missionary who is sent into the jungles of South America. He builds a sanctuary for the Guarani Indians. Robert DeNiro, a reformed slave hunter joins him at the mission. Together they must defend both the mission and the people who live there from the encroaching Portuguese It is all set to Ennio Morricone’s beautiful music.

Father Gabriel’s (Irons) first encounter with the Guarani Indians. [Image courtesy: Mostly Movies]

David Cronenberg’s psychological thriller Dead Ringers saw Iron’s playing identical twin gynecologist. The movie brought the word “co-dependant” to a whole new level. Iron’s is cool (maybe even icy) and creepy in the movie. (It is a total departure from his Father Gabriel. So if you are planning a Jeremy fest, don’t book these two back to back.)

Reversal of Fortune finally brought Irons the Gold. He won both an Academy Award  and a Golden Globe Award for his portrayal of Claus von Bulow.

Irons took on the role of Rene Gallimard when Cronenberg brought M. Butterfly from stage to screen.

You might recognize his growling voice from Disney’s the Lion King. He played Simba’s uncle Scar.

When Bruce Willis brought his Die Hard franchise to New York for Die Hard with a Vengeance, Irons played his foil, psychopath Simon Gruber.

He pulled on some tights when he took on Aramis in The Man in the Iron Mask; Antonio, to Al Pacino’s Shylock, in Michael Radford’s 2004 movie of Shakepeare’s The Merchant of Venice;  suited up as Tiberias, a Knight Templar, in Kingdom of Heaven; and starred in the tv mini-series Elizabeth I, the Virgin Queen, as the Earl of Leicester/Lord Dudley, opposite Helen Mirren’s Bess.

He played photographer Alfred Stieglitz in the made for TV biopic Georgia O’Keefe in 2009.

Still from Georgia O’Keefe. (Image Courtesy: IMDB)

Heck, he’s even voiced the part of Moe’s Bar Rag in the Simpsons!

Irons currently can be seen in Showtime’s sweeping TV mini series The Borgias, a crime drama set in 1492 Italy.

And he plays Henry IV in Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1 & 2  in the BBC’s the Hallow Crown series.

Still from Henry IV, Part 1 with Irons and Tom Hiddleston as Prince Hal (Image Courtesy: The Telegraph)

Here’s Ennio Morricone’s BAFTA Award winning song Gabriel’s Oboe from the film The Mission. [The soundtrack holds a very special place in my heart because we used parts of it, including Gabriel’s Oboe at our wedding. I wrote the publisher to see if I could get the sheet music, but it wasn’t published yet. They contacted Mr. Morricone and they supplied us with a copy of the hand written piano score. How’s that for romantic? This was played on a pipe organ as I walked up the aisle with my dad. ]

Thought of the Day 9.7.12 Elizabeth R.

“I may not be a lion, but I am a lion’s cub, and I have a lion’s heart.”

–Elizabeth I of England

[In honoring QUEEN ELIZABETH REGINA GLORIANA’s birthday I decided to concentrate on her time before she took the throne. Frankly this blog would be enormous if I chronicled her entire life — the post is pretty long as is — and I opted to retell the earlier, slightly less well-known, period. I hope I’ve given you enough to whet your whistle and have no doubt that you’ll be able to find tons of additional material on her life either on-line and at your local library or book store.]

Seventeenth century painting by an unknown artist depicts the later Queen Elizabeth I of England as a (left to right) five-year-old, six-year-old, and three-year-old. The dress is anachronistic. (Image courtesy of: Wikipedia).

Elizabeth Tudor was born on this day in Greenwich Palace, England in 1533. Today is the 479th anniversary of her birth.

She was the daughter of King Henry the VIII of England and his second wife, Anne Boleyn. Henry had divorced his first wife, Katherine of Aragon — with whom he already had one daughter, Mary — and invented a new religion — the Church of England — in order to marry Boleyn. He had great hopes that she would provide him with a male heir. When their only living offspring was a girl, Henry grew disenchanted with Boleyn. His eye soon wandered to pretty (and more docile) Jane Seymour.  But, fearing what would become of herself and Elizabeth, Boleyn refused to divorce the King. On May 19, 1536, Anne Boleyn was executed on charges of treason, incest and adultery.  The marriage was nullified and Elizabeth, like Mary, was declared illegitimate.

Henry, ever the charmer, married four more times before he died. Wife number three, Jane Seymour managed to give Henry his male heir, Prince Edward, but she died nine days later. Elizabeth was seven when her father married Anne of Cleves for political reasons. Henry found her German manners ill-suited  for the English Court, and her face ill-suited for his taste.  Wife number 5 was Catherine Howard, a cousin of Anne Boleyn, and like Boleyn she was arrested for treason and adultery and was beheaded. Unlike Elizabeth’s mother, Catherine was guilty as charged.

Princess Elizabeth, c. 1543-1547.
‘The Family of Henry VIII’, detail.
Anon. Hampton Court Palace. © The Royal Collection.    (Image courtesy: the Faces of Elizabeth I)

Elizabeth was a precocious ten-year old when Henry married his last wife, Catherine Parr. Catherine brought all of Henry’s children back to court. She was Elizabeth’s ‘second mother’ and she saw to it that the girl was well-educated in the Greek and Latin. By the time she was queen Elizabeth could speak five languages fluently.

Perhaps Catherine‘s most significant achievement was Henry‘s passing of an act that confirmed both Princess Mary‘s and Elizabeth‘s line in succession for the throne, despite the fact that they had both been made illegitimate by divorce or remarriage. []

At Henry’s death in 1547 the throne went to Edward, with Mary and then Elizabeth next in line. Elizabeth lived with Catherine at Whitehall in Chelsea. Catherine  and Admiral Thomas Seymour (Jane Seymour’s brother) married just four months after Henry’s death. Thomas, Catherine and 14-year-old Elizabeth moved to Sudeley Castle.

Thomas was reported to have paid morning visits to Elizabeth, in her bedchamber…There was romping, laughing and giggling… no one knows how far these romps went… [Elizabethan Era Index]

Although Catherine and the servants were present during such tom foolery and “Elizabeth denied any scandal or bad behaviour” she left  Sudeley. No ill will seemed to fall between her and Catherine and they wrote to each other affectionately after her departure. But Thomas wasn’t through with the princess yet. After Catherine’s death in childbirth he applied to become Elizabeth’s suitor. He was rejected. He continued to plot for power, even attempting to kidnap the King, and was arrested for treason. And, because of their former friendship, the Princess was implicated . Despite serious interrogation the 15-year-old maintained her innocence.

In 1553 Edward died of tuberculosis. Edward named his cousin, Lady Jane Grey as his heir. Unlike his sisters, Jane had the advantage of being legitimate and the support of the manipulative Lord Protector John Dudley. Unfortunately for her it wasn’t enough. Elizabeth was smart enough to steer clear of Dudley’s power play. She feigned sickness,  kept to her bed, and away from the palace, as the drama played out. Mary took her rightful throne and Elizabeth kept her head. After a brief stay in Queen Mary’s court Elizabeth retreated to Hatfield.

When news of Queen Mary’s intended marriage to King Philip II of Spain surfaced in 1553 protestants in England worried that he’d bring the Spanish Inquisition with him. Nobles who had supported Dudley and Jane Grey now hatched the Wyatt Rebellion. Wyatt implicated Elizabeth in the rebellion by sending her a letter about it before hand. The conspirators wished to make her queen once Mary was dethroned. Elizabeth never got the letter — it was intercepted by Mary’s government agents. The rebellion failed, Wyatt was sentenced to be hung, drawn and quartered. Elizabeth was summed to London for questioning. She asked to see her sister, but was denied. She was allowed to write to Mary and sent her a long letter protesting her innocence and loyalty (and wisely drawling lines through the unused parts of the paper so no forged additions could be made.) She was sent to the Tower of London, and made to enter through the Traitor’s Gate where she said:

“Here landeth as true a subject, being prisoner, as ever landed at these stairs. Before Thee, O God, do I speak it, having no other friend but Thee alone. Oh Lord, I never thought to have come in here as a prisoner, and I pray you all bear me witness that I come in as no traitor but as true a woman to the Queen’s Majesty as any as is now living.” [Elizabeth I from Elizabethan Era Index]

She lived in fear the entire time she was locked up, and was in real danger of being killed when a warrant for her execution came to Bell Tower. But the warrant lacked Mary’s signature and Sir John Brydges, the Lieutenant of the Tower refused to carry out the order unless it was complete.

Elizabeth I as Princess, c.1555.
Artist Unknown. Private Collection. (Image Courtesy: The Faces of Elizabeth I)

After two long months Elizabeth was released  on May 19, 1554. Phillip, it seems, was wise enough to know that the English would harbor some ill will over the execution of their beloved Princess, and that that ill will would be turned toward him.

He advised Mary to release Elizabeth from the Tower. And Mary, who was besotted with Phillip, obeyed…. Elizabeth was released… but was … placed under the equivalent of house arrest at the palace at Woodstock. [Elizabeth I from Elizabethan Era Index]

She was under constant surveillance at Woodstock. Her writing materials were restricted, her books censored,  and activities limited. After almost a year in the virtual prison at Woodstock Elizabeth was freed. She traveled, under heavy guard, to Hampton Court where she was allowed to meet with Phillip. He was instrumental in a reconciliation between the sisters (frosty though it may be). He would rather have Elizabeth next in line to the English throne than Mary Queen of Scotts — who supported his enemy France.

The Coronation Portrait, c. 1600.
Copy of 1559 lost original.
Artist Unknown.
Previously attr. to William Stretes. © National Portrait Gallery.
(Image courtesy: The Faces of Elizabeth I)

Elizabeth went home to Hatfield. On November 17th 1558 Mary died and Elizabeth became Queen of England. She was crowned on Sunday January 15th 1559. She died on March 24th 1603 having ruled for 45 years.

Elizabeth in later life. (Image courtesy: Elizabeth I Biography.)

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